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Nikaat-e-SuKhan #1:

  (Article)

Nikaat-e-SuKhan # 1

1.1 : Harf-e-avval

kuchh’ din pehle internet kee mHefiloN meN Urdu shaa,I’ree meN ista’maal hone waalee beHroN par ma'loomaat kee darKhwaast kee gayee th’ee. maZ^aameen kaa yeh silsilah isee Hawaaleh se pesh kiyaa jaa rahaa hai. is maZ^moon kee wus,a’t aur pecheedagee ke pesh-e-naz^ar maiN jo t^areeq-e-kaar iKhtiyaar kar rahaa hooN us kee tafSeelaat neeche darj haiN. ummeed hai keh in se maZ^moon paRhne waaloN kee mushkileN bohat kuch. door ho jaayeN gee.

(1) yeh maZ^moon kayee qist^oN meN pesh kiyaa jaaYe gaa. is se mujh` ko bh`ee aasaanee ho gee aur paRhne vaaloN ko bh`ee dushwaaree naheeN ho gee. har qist^ meN kam-o-besh milte julte maZ^aameen se beHc ho gee, lekin sab qist^eN aapas meN musalsal aur marboot^ hoN gee taa.k maZ^moon ke iKhtitaam par ek mukammal naqshah aap ke saamne aa jaaYe.

(2) z^aahir hai keh yeh maZ^moon Roman Urdu meN likh`aa jaa rahaa hai. is meN English kaa ista’maal ba-Haalat-e-majbooree aise maqaamaat par ho gaa jahaaN English ke ista’maal se baat ziyaada Saaf aur aasaan ho saktee hai.

(3) fil.Haal yahaaN Sirf Ghazal se hee guftgoo ho gee. doosree manz^oomaat (naz^m, qit,a’, rubaa.e’e waGhaira) par ba'd meN Z^aroorat aur qaari,een kaa shauq dekh` kar likh`aa jaa saktaa hai.

Ghazal par beHc bilkul ibtidaayee baatoN se chal kar ziyaada mushkil baatoN ko apne daaman meN sameTe.gee. is se mubtadiyoN ke I’laawah aise logoN kaa bh`ee faa,idah ho gaa jo Ghazal kee duniyaa meN pehlaa qadam rakh`naa chaahte haiN. yeh mumkin hai keh is t^areeqeh ko apnaane se baa-i’lm aur tajribeh-kaar eHbaab ko kuch’ ziyaadah HaaSil naheeN hogaa, lekin akcariyat kee bhalaayee kee Khaat^ir un se Sabr aur kushaadah-dilee kee dast-bastah guZaarish hai. saath` hee yeh bh`ee darKhwaast hai keh woh agar maZ^aameen meN kaheeN koyee Ghalat^ee dekh`eN to mujh` ko faagaah kar deN taa.k maiN apnee islaaH kar sakooN.

(4) maiN maZ^moon kee zabaan aasaan aur Saaf rakh`ne kee pooree koshish karooN gaa. ph`ir bh`ee chooN.k hamaaree beHc shaa,i’ree jaise mushkil fan se hai jis meN bohat see baateN tekneekee hoNgee is liYe mat^lab kee adaa,igee aur waZ^aaHat ke liYe jagah jagah mushkil alfaaz^ kaa sahaara lenaa Z^arooree ho gaa.

meree behtareen koshishoN ke baa-wujood Ghazal ke shaa,iqeen ko jumlah ma'loomaat se pooraa faa,idah uThaane ke liYe Ghaur-o-fikr aur tavajjuh ke I’laavah zabaan, bayaan aur lafz^iyaat (vocabulary) par KhaaSee meHnat karnee hogee. Chunaan.ch jo log in maZ^aameen se pooraa faai,dah uThaanaa chaahate haiN unheN ek achh`ee luGhat (dictionary) kaa intiz^aam karnaa ho gaa, yaa ph^ir voh mushkil alfaaz^ aur ist^ilaaHaat ke mat^aalib aur mazeed tashreeH kisee se pooch` leN.

(5) shauqeen aur sanjeedah paRh`ne vaaloN se guZaarish hai keh voh in maZ^aameen ko ko qist^waar chh`aap leN kyoN.k jab tak is kee aaKHiree qist^ aaYe gee, ek kitaabchah taiyyaar ho chukaa hogaa jis ko aa,indah ma,aaKhiZ (reference) ke t^aur par ista’maal kiyaa jaa sake gaa.

ab aa,iYe Nikaat-e-SuKhan kee pehlee qist^ se is silsileh kaa aaGhaaz kareN:

ch`eRaa hai “Raz” maiN ne afsaanah-e-muHabbat
aaGhaaz se ho achh`aa aNjaam daastaaN kaa! (Raz Chandpuri)

1.2 : Roman Urdu kaa t^areeq-e-kitaabat (Trasliteration Scheme)

in maZ^aameen meN Roman kitaabat kaa woh niz^aam ista’maal kiyaa gayaa hai jis ko main ne murattab kiyaa hai. yeh niz^aam apnee saaree tahSeelaat ke saath` internet par mere web-site par dekh`aa jaa saktaa hai.

1.3 : Ghazal ke ma'nee :

insaan ne apne Khayaalaat, meHsoosaat, tajribaat aur mushaahidaat ke iz^haar ke liYe muKhtalif z^uroof eejaad kiYe haiN. agar koyee shaKhS raNg aur moo-qalam (brush) ko apnaa Zari,a’h-e-iz^haar banaaYe to voh 'muSawwir' kehlaataa hai. agar voh taal, sur aur saaz-o-aavaaz se kaam le to 'mooseeqaar' kehlaataa hai, aur agar voh alfaaz^ ko ek maKhSooS shakl meN ista,maal kar ke kaaGhaZ par jaadoo jagaaYe to ham us ko :shaa,I’r: kehte haiN. isee liYe Munshi Brij Narain “Chakbast” Lucknawi ne kahaa th`aa keh :

shaa,i’ree kyaa hai? dilee jaZbaat kaa iz^haar hai
dil agar bekaar hai to shaa,i’ree bekaar hai!

Ghazal shaa,i’ree kee ek nihaayat dilkash aur maqbool Sinf hai. adab kee taareeKh meN ek bh`ee shaa,i’r aisaa naheeN guZraa hai jis ne apnee shaa,i’ree ke kisee nah kisee lamHe meN Ghazal nah kahee ho.

Ghazal ke luGHavee (dictionary) ma'nee haiN :apne meHboob se guftgoo karnaa:. Isee munaasibat se Ghazal apne mizaaj aur mauZ^oo,a’at meN doosree aSnaaf-e-suKhan se munfarid hai. Husn-o-i’shq, hijr-o-wiSaal, parvaana-o-shama’, zindagee ke raNj-o-aalaam, duniyaa kee be-cabaatee waGhairah Ghazal ke KhaaS mauZ^oo' haiN.

is kaa mat^lab yeh naheeN hai keh Ghazal aur doosre masaa,il ko band`hne kee ijaazat naheeN detee hai, yaa us kee shakl in masaa,il ke bayaan kee mutaHammil naheeN hai. jadeed sho,a'raa ne is silsileh meN baRee kaavish kee hai aur :roTee-kapRaa aur makaan: se le kar :mazdoor aur
sarmaayah-daar : tak muKhtalif maZ^aameen ko Ghazal meN baaNdh`aa hai. magar shaaZ-o--naadir hee un ko is meN Khaat^ir Khwaah kaamyaabee huyee hai.

1.4 : Ghazal ke ajzaa-e-tarkeebee:

hai,at (z^aahiree shakl) ke e'tibaar se Ghazal ke ajzaa-e-tarkeebee chaar (4) maane jaate haiN:

(a) radeef (b) qaafiyah (c) mat^la' (d) maqt^a'

in par muKhtaSar beHc dar-e-zel hai.

in ke I’laavah chand aur iSt^ilaaHaat bh`ee Ghazal se waabastah haiN, macala” taKhalluS, zameen, Ghazal-e-musalsal, do-Ghazlah, wazn, beHr, waGhairah. in par guftgoo munaasib maqaamaat par aa,indah SafHaat meN ho gee.

Ghazal kee iSt^ilaaHaat samajh`ne ke liYe Momin Khan “Momin” kee ek Ghazal neeche likh`ee jaa rahee hai:

tum bh`ee rehne lage Khafaa SaaHeb (1)
kaheeN saaya miraa paRaa SaaHeb?

hai yeh baNdah hee be-vafaa SaaHeb (2)
Ghair aur tum bh`ale! bh`alaa SaaHeb?

kyoN ulajh`te ho juNbish-e-lab se (3)
Khair hai? maiN ne kyaa kahaa SaaHeb?

Dam-e-aaKHir bh`ee tum naheeN aaYe (4)
baNdagee ab keh maiN chalaa SaaHeb.

kis pe bigRe th`e, kis pe Ghussah th`aa? (q) (5)
raat tum kis peh th`e Khafaa SaaHeb?

kis ko dete th`e gaaliyaaN laakh`oN (6)
kis kaa shab Zikr-e-Khair th`aa SaaHeb?

Naam-e-i’shq-e-butaaN na lo “Momin” (7)
keejiYe bas Khudaa, Khudaa SaaHeb!

is Ghazal meN saat (7) ash,a’ar (sing: she’r) haiN aur har she’r meN do (2) :miSre': (lines) haiN. goyaa Ghazal meN har she’r kee takmeel ke liYe do miSre’ Z^arooree hote haiN. yeh bh`ee dekh`iYe keh Ghazal kaa har miSra’ ek hee :lambaayee: kaa hai. is ko she’r kee zabaan meN ham yooN kaheN ge keh :har miSra’/she’r ek hee beHr ( literally :samundar) ya'nee :meter: meN hai. kaheeN se ek Harf nikaal deejiYe to voh miSra’ beHr se baahar ho jaaye gaa (is ko she’r kaa :beHr se Khaarij honaa yaa baahar honaa: kehte haiN). yeh Khaamee Ghazal meN naa-qaabil-e-qubool hai. (beHr kee tafSeelaat aage munaasib maqaam par aa rahee haiN.)

ab aap oopar dee huee iSt^ilaaHaat kee tashreeH mulaaHiz^ah farmaaiye:

(a) radeef : voh lafz, tarkeeb yaa fiqrah hai jo har she’r ke doosre miSre’ ke aaKhir meN laazima” aataa hai. Momin kee Ghazal meN radeef :SaaHeb: hai. woh Ghazal jis meN radeef kaa ehtimaam kiyaa jaaYe :muraddaf: Ghazal kehlaatee hai. Ghazal meN radeef kaa ista’maal Z^arooree naheeN hai HaalaaN.k beshtar sho,araa is kee paabandee karte haiN. aisee Ghazal jis meN radeef ista’maal nah kee gayee ho :Ghair muraddaf: Ghazal kehlaatee hai. is kee ek micaal darj-e-Zel hai:

yeh SubH-o-shaam kee uljh`an yeh roz-o-shab kee yaad
sunaa,ooN kyaa tumheN afsaanah-e-dil-e-barbaad

jo aaYe yaad to dil Doob Doob jaataa hai
jo us ko bh`oolnaa chaahooN to aur aaYe yaad!

maiN Khud ko Dh`ooNDne niklaa to raastah nah milaa
daleel-e-raah naz^ar th`ee miree, so be-buniyaad!

Khayaal-o-Khwaab kee duniyaa hai aur maiN “Sarwar”
umeed-e-daad hai mujh` ko nah shikvah-e-bedaad (Sarwar Raz :Sarwar:)

is Ghazal meN radeef naheeN hai aur har she’r ke doosre miSre’ kaa aaKhiree lafz^ ham-aawaaz hai (yaad, barbaad, buniyaad vaGhaira). aise alfaaz^ ko :qaafiyah: kehte haiN.

(b) qaafiyah (pl: qawaafee): voh lafz, tarkeeb yaa fiqrah jo radeef se faura” pehle aataa hai qaafiyah kehlaataa hai. Momin kee Ghazal ke qawaafee :Khafaa, baRaa, bh`alaa: vaGhaira haiN aur Sarwar kee Ghazal ke qaafiYe :barbaad, yaad, buniyaad : vaGhaira haiN.

dekh`iYe keh yeh sab alfaaz^ ham-aawaaz haiN (ya’nee :rhyme: kar rahe haiN). qawaafee ke liYe yeh shart^-e-laazim hai. goyaa :non-rhyming: alfaaz^ ek hee Ghazal meN ba-t^aur-e-qaafiyah ista’maal naheeN ho sakte haiN. yeh alfaaz^ (i.e., bh`alaa, kahaa, Khafaa) ham-qaafiyah kehlaate haiN.

(c) mat^la': ke ma’nee haiN :t^uloo' yaa shuroo' hone kee jagah:. mat^la' Ghazal ke pehle she’r ko kehte haiN kyoN.k yaheeN se Ghazal kee ibtidaa hotee hai. mat^le’ ke donoN miSro’N meN qaafiyah/radeef kaa honaa Z^arooree hai. goyaa mat^le' ke donoN miSre’ hameshah :ham.qaafiyah: hote hain.
mat^le' ke I’laavah saare ash,a’ar ke pehle miSre’ qaafiyeh ke paaband naheeN hote haiN. albattah sab :caanee: (doosre number ke) miSro’N kaa qaafiyeh kee paabandee karnaa laazimee hai. Ghazal meN ek se ziyaadah ma^tle' ho sakte haiN. is soorat meN pehle mat^le' ko mat^la’-e-awwal yaa mat^la'-e-oolaa aur doosre ko mat^la'-e-caanee yaa Husn-e-mat^a' kahaa jaataa hai. Momin kee Ghazal meN sher #1 mat^la'-e-avval hai aur she’r #2 matla'-e-caanee.

(d) maqt^a' : ke ma’nee haiN qat^a' yaa Khatm hone kee jagah. isee munaasibat se Ghazal ke aaKhiree she’r ko maqt^a’ kehte haiN kyoN.k yahaaN aa kar Ghazal Khatm ho jaatee hai. u’mooma” shaa,i’r maq^te' meN apnaa :taKhalluS: (muKhtaSar naam) Daal detaa hai. shaa,i’ree meN koyee aisaa uSool naheeN hai jo shaa,i’r ko maqt^e' meN taKhalluS baaNdh`ne par majboor kare, magar beshtar sho,a'raa maqt^e’ meN apne taKhalluS baaNdh`te haiN aur is t^araH Ghazal par apnaa :Thappah: yaa shinaaKhtee muhr lagaa dete haiN.
taKhalluS kuch’ bh`ee ho saktaa hai. ba'Z^ sho,a’raa apnaa naam hee taKhalluS ke t^aur par ista’maal karte haiN aur ba'Z^ koyee doosraa farZ^ee naam is maqSad ke liYe iKhtiyaar kar lete haiN, macala” Asad-ullah Khan naam aur taKhalluS “Ghalib” aur Muhamaad Iqbal naam aur taKhalluS “Iqbal”.

yahaaN par shaa,i’ree kee ek aur iSt^ilaaH :zameen: kee ta'reef-o-tashreeH munaasib ma'loom hotee hai. Ghazal kee shinaaKht kaa ek Zari.a’h radeef aur qaafiyeh ke ishtiraak se banaayaa gayaa hai jise :zameeN: kehte haiN, macala” Momin kee Ghazal kee zameen :Khafaa SaaHeb, baRaa SaaHeb: hai. isee taraH Ghalib kee mash,hoor Ghazal :koyee din gar zindagaanee aur hai: kee zameen :zindagaanee aur hai, Thaanee aur hai: kahee jaaYe gee.

1.5 : Ghazal kee KhuSooSiyaat aur iltizaamaat

Ghazal doosree aSnaaf-e-suKhan (naz^m, rubaa,e’e, qit^a', muKhammas waGhairah) se Sirf apnee hai,at (z^aahiree shakl) kee vajh se hee mumtaaz naheeN hai bal.k apne maZ^aameen, aur aNdaaz-e-bayaan meN bh`ee munfarid hai. Ghazal kaa har she’r ek mukammal weHdat yaa ikaayee hotaa hai. ya'nee koyee she’r apnee tashreeH aur vazaaHat ke liYe kisee doosre she’r kaa muHtaaj naheeN hotaa hai. chunaan.ch Ghazal kaa ek she’r Husn-o-i’shq par, doosraa falsafah-e-Hayaat par, teesraa siyaasat par aur chauth`aa duniyaa kee be-cabaatee par ho saktaa hai. doosre alfaaz^ meN ham yeh keh sakte haiN keh Ghazal kaa har she’r apnee Zaat meN ek mukammal aur muKhtaSar naz^m hotaa hai. goyaa Ghazal ke tamaam ash,a’ar meN

Khayaal-o-mauZ^oo' ke tasalsul aur yaksaaniyat kee shart^ laazimee naheeN hai.

Ghazal ke ash,a’ar meN Khayaal aur mauZ^oo' kee maZkoorah aazaadee ko mu,accar banaane ke liYe Z^arooree hai keh Ghazal ke Khayaal-o-mauZ^oo' us ke mizaaj se ham-aahaNg hoN. Ghazal kee ek nihaayat aham KhuSooSiyat us kee :daaKhiliyyat: ya'nee “shaa,i’r ke Khayaalaat aur meHsoosaat kaa Khud usee kee Zaat se paida honaa” hai. is liYe shaa,i’r kaa farZ^ hotaa hai keh voh har Khaarijee maZ^moon (ya'nee aisee baat jo shaa,i’r kee Zaat se baahar ke a’waamil aur muHarrikaat (stimulants) se paidaa huyee ho) ko apnee fikr-o-Zaat kaa ek HiSSah banaa le aur un ko yooN meHsoos kare jaise voh Khud un kaa shikaar rahaa hai.
is :daaKhiliyyat: ke I’laavah Ghazal kee be-panaah maqbooliyat kee ek aur vajh bh`ee hai. ya'nee Sirf do miSro’N meN baRe se baRaa maZ^moon dilkash andaaz meN adaa karne kee qaabiliyat aur SalaaHiyat! is KhuSooSiyat ko :ijaz-o-iKhtiSaar : (inimitability and brevity) kahaa jaataa hai. yehee sabab hai keh Ghazal-go shaa,i’r apnee taKhleeqaat meN a’laamaat, ishaare, tashbeehaat, isti,a’are waGhairah kacrat se ista’maal kartaa hai.

yeh Z^arooree naheeN hai keh Ghazal kaa har she’r hameshah hee alag alag maZ^moon bayaan kare. yeh bh`ee ho saktaa hai keh ek hee maZ^moon ke muKhtalif pehloo pooree Ghazal meN bayaan kiYe gaYe hoN. chunaan.ch Ghazal-e-musalsal aisee Ghazal ko kehte haiN jis meN ek hee buniaadee Khayaal yaa jaZbeh aur us kee jehtoN ko muKhtalif alfaaz^-o-.andaaz meN bayaan kiyaa jaataa hai. lihaaZah Ghazal-e-musalsal kee micaal ek aisee maalaa yaa haar se dee jaa saktee hai jiskaa har daanah ek hee Khayaal yaa jaZbeh kee tasbeeH paRh`taa huwaa naz^ar aataa ho. Hasrat Mohani kee mash,hoor Ghazal :chupke chupke raat din aaNsoo bahaanaa yaad hai: Ghazal-e-musalsal kee achh`ee micaal hai.

yahaaN do mazeed iSt^ilaaHoN kaa Zikr naa-munaasib naheeN hogaa:

do-Ghazlah: (jaisa keh naam se z^aahir hai) aisee do GhazaloN ke majmoo,e’h ko kehte haiN jo ek hee beHr aur zameen meN mat^le' aur maqt^e' kee paabandee ke saath` kahee gayee hoN.

qit^a'-band : ba'z auqaat shaa,i’r apnee Ghazal ke beech meN aise ash,a’ar rakh` detaa hai jo ek hee Khayaal adaa karte haiN. aise ash,a’ar ke giroh ko :qit^a'-band kahaa jaataa hai. u’mooma” Ghazal meN is kee nishaan-dehee qit^e' ke pehle miSre’ ke paas Harf :qaaf: likh` kar kee jaatee hai taa.k qaaree maZ^moon ke tasalsul, ravaanee aur maqSadiyat ko meHsoos kar sake. oopar dee huyee Momin kee Ghazal meN she’r # 5, 6 aise hee qita' ke ash'aar haiN.

1.6 : Ghazal kyaa hai?

oopar kee mufaSSil beHc ke ba'd is savaal kaa jawaab keh :Ghazal kyaa hai? : nisbata” aasaan ho jaataa hai:

Ghazal aise ash,a’ar kaa majmoo,a’h hai jo Khud do (2) miSro’N se tashkeel-pazeer hote haiN, aur jo radeef, qaafiyeh, mat^le' aur maqt^e' ke paaband hote haiN. Ghazal kaa har she’r laazima” ek hee beHr meN hotaa hai aur u’mooma” apnee tashreeH ke liYe doosre ash,a’ar kaa muHtaaj naheeN hotaa hai. goyaa har she’r apnaa Khayaal alag rakh`taa hai. waise Ghazal meN ek hee Khayaal ke muKhtalif pehloo bayaan karne kee bh’ee ijaazat hai. tafseelaat ooper aa chukee haiN.
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Aham Haashiyah:

Nikaat-e-SuKhan ke is silsileh kee tamaam ma’loomaat muKhtalif kitaaboN se lee gayee hai. kaheeN kaheeN to in kitaaboN kee teHreer lafz^ ba-lafz^ yahaaN naql kee gayee hai. goyaa in maZ^aameen kaa koyee HiSSah meraa t^aba’zaad (original creation) naheeN hai. yeh tashreeH Z^arooree hai taa.k mujh` par sarqeh (choree) kaa ilzaam nah lag sake. jin kitaaboN se madad lee gayee hai un ke naam darj-e-Zel haiN. maiN in kitaaboN ke muSannifeen kaa shukr-guZaar hooN keh in kee madad se yeh maZ^aameen maiN internet par bohat se ahl-e-Urdu tal poNhchaa sakaa hooN:

(1) Raaz-e-Arooz : Seemab Akbarabadi
(2) Dars-e-Balaaghat: S. R. Farooqui
(3) Nikaat-e-Sukhan: Hasrat Mohani
(4) Chiraagh-e-Sukhan: Yaganah Changezi
(5) Umdah Urdu Arooz: Mohammad Zubair Farooqui
(6) Tafheem-ul-Arooz : Jamaluddin Jamal

Sarwar A. Raz “Sarwar”



 

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